Models allow the prediction of impact of change in biotic and abiotic factors

Levels of Order:
  • The first level is the individual organism, its physiology and behavior, what it eats and where it lives.
  • The second level is populations of organism--individuals of the same species living together and interacting.
  • The third level is communities, which include populations of various species living together or interacting with one another.
  • The fourth level is ecosystems, which include the nonliving (abiotic) elements of the environment, as well as its living (biotic) organisms.
  • The fifth level is the ecoregion, which considers nature on the scale of large landscapes, such as tropical rain forests.

  • 1st level:The survival of the mangrove tree that lives in coastal wetlands is dependent on many factors, including its ability to tolerate the salinity of its environment.
  • 2nd level:Mangrove trees may trap sediments to create a stable environment.
  • 3rd level:From mangroves to shrimp to bass, alligators, manatees, and egrets, all in one location.
  • 4th level:The mangrove swamp ecosystem is comprised of a large number of interdependent elements, including fresh and salt water, climate, sediment, and pollution from agricultural runoff in addition to organism such as the shrimp and alligators.


Ecosystems are the biotic and abiotic factors in a specified area that interact with one another.
Plants and animals interact with their abiotic environment. Attempts are made by the plant or animal to reduce or increase the quantity of an abiotic factor.

fg02_022.jpgAbiotic factors:
  • Terrain
  • Wind
  • Type of soil create different micro climates by influencing temperature and moisture in localized areas.
Biotic factors:
  • Shading of one plant by another
  • Chemical produced by one plant may limit growth of another plant
  • Presence of Herbivores tasty plants are consumed first.